Childhood Neurological Disorders

A list of childhood neurological disorders that are familiar and/or commonly encountered is given below and these disorders are also called as pediatric neurological disorders.

Note that in general many of the human diseases can occur almost at any age, but the incidence usually varies, sometimes significantly. And consistent with this observation - there are many neurological conditions although can occur almost at any age however more frequently seen in a child than an adult. The below list will mention some of such common conditions.

Congenital (person born with):

• Migrational disorders
• Spina bifida, myelocele, myelomeningocele
• Tethered cord syndrome
• Congenital Myopathy (e.g. central core disease ) etc

Genetic (hereditary & non hereditary):

• Muscular Dystrophies (e.g Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker’s muscular dystrophy)
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
• Neurocutaneous syndromes (e.g. neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis etc)
Leukodystrophy
Peroxisomal Disorders
Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Infectious diseases

• Meningitis (listeria, meningococcal, H influenza et)
• Encephalitis (e.g. herpes encephalitis, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis) etc

Tumors:

Medulloblastoma
Brain Stem Glioma
• Pilocytic astrocytoma etc.

Traumatic:

• Any childhood head, spine, nerve or muscle injury

Vascular:

• Congenital stroke
• Stroke in childhood etc

Demyelinating Conditions

• ADEM (Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis)

Neurobehavioral:

• ADHD (ADD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

The individual conditions are discussed in detail and click on the links above to go to those pages. Detailed information on the clinical manifestations (presentations), diagnosis & treatment (management) are discussed there.

Unfortunately several genetic disorders start manifesting during the childhood. Although genetic disorders can present during adult life as well however when they present during early life they usually are x linked or autosomal recessive and may progress rapidly. A curative treatment is still not available for majority of these conditions but some encouraging results are coming out with treatments like gene therapy, ERT (enzyme replacement therapy) etc.

A Neurologist is commonly involved in the care of neurological diseases that occur during the childhood and many times a multidisciplinary treatment approach is required depending upon the individual condition and its level of progression. So it is not unusual to see several other physicians and/or medical staff involved in the care of patients with childhood neurological disorders e.g. neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, psychologist, physical, occupational, speech therapists etc.

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